Investors rely on stock valuation metrics to assess a company’s financial health and its shares’ relative worth. These metrics guide decision-making by helping determine whether a stock is fairly priced, overvalued, or undervalued. Here’s a comprehensive guide to the most popular stock valuation metrics:

### 1. Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio

The P/E ratio compares a company’s current share price to its earnings per share (EPS). It’s a quick snapshot of how much investors are willing to pay per dollar of earnings.

• Calculation: P/E Ratio = Current Share Price / Earnings Per Share (EPS)
• Significance: A high P/E may indicate that the market expects future growth, while a low P/E could suggest undervaluation or stagnant growth prospects.

### 2. Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio

The P/B ratio compares the market value of a company’s equity (price) to its book value (assets minus liabilities).

• Calculation: P/B Ratio = Market Price per Share / Book Value per Share
• Significance: A P/B ratio below one can signal an undervalued stock, while a higher ratio suggests the stock may be overvalued.

### 3. Dividend Yield

The dividend yield measures the annual dividend payout relative to the stock price.

• Calculation: Dividend Yield = Annual Dividend per Share / Stock Price per Share
• Significance: Higher dividend yields appeal to income-focused investors but can sometimes signal that dividends are unsustainable if payout ratios are too high.

### 4. Price-to-Sales (P/S) Ratio

The P/S ratio compares a company’s stock price to its revenue per share.

• Calculation: P/S Ratio = Market Price per Share / Revenue per Share
• Significance: This metric is useful for evaluating startups or companies with low profitability since it focuses on top-line revenue.

### 5. Price-to-Cash Flow (P/CF) Ratio

The P/CF ratio assesses a company’s market price relative to its operating cash flow per share.

• Calculation: P/CF Ratio = Market Price per Share / Operating Cash Flow per Share
• Significance: It provides insights into a company’s ability to generate cash, which is crucial for funding operations and growth.

### 6. Enterprise Value-to-EBITDA (EV/EBITDA)

The EV/EBITDA ratio compares a company’s enterprise value (EV) to its earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA).

• Calculation: EV/EBITDA = Enterprise Value / EBITDA
• Significance: EV/EBITDA offers a holistic valuation by considering debt, making it ideal for cross-company comparisons.

### 7. Earnings Yield

The earnings yield is the inverse of the P/E ratio, providing a percentage measure of how much a company earns per dollar invested.

• Calculation: Earnings Yield = Earnings per Share (EPS) / Market Price per Share
• Significance: This metric helps investors compare stocks with fixed-income investments and identify high-earning companies.

### Conclusion

Stock valuation metrics offer invaluable insights for investors seeking to determine a company’s true value and growth prospects. By leveraging these ratios and formulas in combination, one can build a well-rounded view of a stock’s financial health. However, these metrics should be used with other qualitative factors like market conditions and competitive positioning to ensure sound investment decisions.

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